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The Vatican excommunicated Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò for refusing to recognize Pope Francis’ authority and the liberal reforms since the Second Vatican Council. This rare punishment highlights Viganò’s extreme criticism, including calling the pope “a servant of Satan.” Viganò, once a critic of clerical abuse, has become a fringe conservative, embracing conspiracy theories. The Vatican’s disciplinary body found him guilty of schism and denying the pope’s legitimacy. The excommunication can only be reversed by the pope or the Dicastery of the Doctrine of the Faith.

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